The calculations used in a marks book are determined using the Cutoffs and Weightings set in the Marks book settings, Assessment settings and Course type.

## Calculating overall scores and grades

As scores and grades are entered, the Overall Gd (Calc Gd) and Overall % (Calc %) are automatically calculated using the cutoff's and weightings set in the marks book settings, course type and assessments themselves. The result in the "Calc Gd" and "Calc %" fields are typically transferred to the reporting section of the marks book to be included on reports.

## Z-score and standardised score

Unless a student genuinely performs at the median level compared to their class, assigned averages can often unfairly advantage or disadvantage students. The z score shows the number of standard deviations a student is away from the mean. This can then be applied to individual assessments to ‘predict’ a score, when an assessment has been missed, that is weighted by the student’s proximity to the class mean.

**Standardised score calculation:**

- Χ = Raw score (student’s average for all assessments)
- μ = Mean score (class average for all assessments)
- σ = Standard deviation (class standard deviation for all assessments)

## Standardised score

Standardised scores can be used to calculate a result, based on the students z-score and the assessment averages. There are three modes available and depend upon which assessment results you would like included when determining the Standardised score. These are outlined below.

The calculations will be based on the students currently appearing on the screen. This means if you select more then one class the calculations will apply to all the selected classes. Whereas, if you have only one class showing, the calculations will be determined by the students results in the one class.

- Standardised score (by group) - The system determines the standardised score based on the results of all the assessments in that Assessment group.
- Standardised score (by type) - The system determines the standardised score based on the results of all the assessments of that Assessment Type, within the same Assessment group.
- Standardised score (overall) - Based on all the results for assessment in the Marks book.
**Standardised score formula:**

- Z = z-score (the student's z-score for all assessments)
- μ = Mean score (class average for the individual assessment)
- σ = Standard deviation (class standard deviation for the individual assessment)

## Marks book views (Adjusted, Raw and Adjusted (with delta)

Please refer to the following article for more information:

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